November 27, 2022

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- For the first time we can explain this

– For the first time we can explain this

When one looks at the starry sky at night, many people see that the stars are ancient celestial bodies – millions, perhaps billions of years older than Earth.

But this is completely wrong. Many constellations have been created after That dinosaur horizontally to the ground. For the first time, astronomers have recreated how our region of the galaxy evolved — and that might present surprises for some.

Scientists have long known that our solar system is surrounded by a huge supernova bubble. Now US researchers have reworked the history of the “local bubble” or “local bubble”, finding that it is only 14 million years old.

It was created by several stars that exploded in supernovae, and it happened just here where the globe is today. Fortunately, the globe and the monkeys that lived on it at that time were far away when it fell.

The researchers can also report that seven of the stellar factories closest to the Sun are all located in the bubble’s edge region. Hence it is a supernova remnant. The young stars made in these stellar factories are our closest stellar neighbors, and therefore much smaller than Earth.

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bubbles

Astronomers have known the “local bubble” for decades. It’s a small part of Orion’s arm, a smaller spiral arm in our galaxy – the Milky Way.

The bubble has a radius of about 500 light-years, and is characterized by an extremely low density of interstellar gas within the bubble.

Interstellar gas is mostly made up of hydrogen, then helium, and then smaller amounts of heavy elements such as carbon and oxygen, University of Oslo professor of cosmology, Austin Elgarwe, explains to Netavisen.

Bubble boundaries are characterized by regions of high density of interstellar gas. There are seven known molecular clouds or nebulae in these regions. These are the regions where stars are formed.

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star factories

Many areas are named after the constellation in which you can see them. Here we present the seven molecular clouds that lie at the edge of the local bubble.

  • Chameleon (in the constellation Chameleon). It is also known as the Eta Chamaeleontis or Mamajek 1 group. It is estimated to be 8 million years old and located 316 light years from Earth.
  • Musca in the constellation The Fly in the Southern Sky, is a molecular cloud that got a lot of attention in 2018 when scientists discovered that the interstellar molecular cloud was vibrating with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves.
  • The Tube Nebula (in the zodiac sign Serpent Bearer) also bears the name Barnard 59. It is a dark, tube-shaped molecular cloud. It is located about 450 light-years from Earth.
  • Taurus (in the constellation Taurus): Also called the Taurus-Auriga complex, it is about 430 light-years from Earth. (Not to be confused with the Crab Nebula, which is also in Taurus, but is very far from Earth.)
  • Lupus (in the constellation of the wolf) is a cloud complex located about 490 light-years from the Sun.
  • Rho Ophiuchi (in the constellation Serpent Bearer) is located 430 light years from Earth.
  • Corona Australis molecular cloud (in the constellation Crown South). The molecular cloud is located 430 light years from Earth.

Young stars in these “stellar factories” are the Sun’s closest neighbors.

Created by many supernovae

American scientists have now reconstructed the history of the local bubble, finding that it was created by a series of supernovae over a few million years. They believe that the first eruption erupted about 14 million years ago.

A supernova is an exploding star, which is relatively common in the Milky Way. Professor Elgarøy says this happens about every 50 years. He says that the Crab Nebula is a supernova remnant described by Chinese astronomers in 1054, and in 1987 a supernova explosion was observed in one of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, the Great Magellanic Cloud.

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Only stars more than eight times the size of the Sun explode. Smaller stars, like the Sun, will shrink towards the end of their lives.

The supernovae that exploded here about 14 million years ago, you can see their remnants in the molecular clouds at the outer edge of the bubble. The bubble is still growing at a rate of seven kilometers per second. There is almost nothing in this context.

It has lost most of its power, and speed has almost fallen, astronomer and data visualization expert Catherine Zucker tells EurekAlert! , who wrote the report that is now published is “nature”.

Then the solar system arrived

Fortunately, the land was not here when it narrowed. The solar system, like other stars in the Milky Way, rotates with the galaxy, moving at a speed of about 900,000 km / h. About 10 million years after these supernovae created the local bubble, our solar system has reached the bubble.

At this time, Earth was already a very ancient planet. Dinosaurs became extinct long ago, and mammals took over.

Over the past four or five million years, the Earth has walked through the local bubble. Coincidentally, today it’s almost in the middle of the bubble – that’s where the eruptions occurred. During this time, a certain type of monkey got up on two legs and developed what they like to call intelligence.

detective work

The Local Bubble isn’t the only bubble in the galaxy. The researchers compared the Milky Way to Swiss cheese, where holes in cheese are blown out by supernovae, and where new stars can form in cheese around holes left by dying stars.

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“This is a fascinating detective story, drawn from data and theory,” said Harvard University professor Alyssa Goodman, who co-authored the report.

And so the story is summarized in This article was published in “Nature”.The world’s leading multidisciplinary scientific journal. The authors are astronomers at the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard and Smithsonian (CfA) and Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI).

– This is really a story about the beginning. For the first time, we can explain how nearby stars form, says astronomer and data visualization expert Catherine Zucker, who completed her work at CfA.

New knowledge and technology

An important resource for this project is Project Gaia European Space Agency (ESA). Gaia aims to map the entire Milky Way, and has cataloged over a billion stars.

Zucker and her colleagues used this data to search for young stars near the sun. These young stars tend to cluster together in regions where stars are formed.

Then they searched for gas and dust in the room. This can be measured by seeing how much light is emitted by the obscured stars on its way to Earth.

The result of the work was the discovery that all the young stars in our region are on the edge of the local bubble, as well as a re-creation of what happened here in the past million years.

Katherine Zucker Haar Sin private blog. here You can read more about astronomy. You can also read a larger article about this at Hubblesite.org.

So the next time you look at the stars, you might think that some of them aren’t old at all, and some are made of material that was once found in massive stars that have exploded where you’re standing.