This illusion is completely new to science, according to a new study published in the scientific journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
The study’s first author is Bruno Linge, a professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Oslo.
A widening hole is a very dynamic illusion. The circular spot or shadow in the middle of the black hole evokes a noticeable impression of optical flow, as if the observer were moving forward in a hole or tunnel, he says in Press release.
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The illusion shows that the reflection of the pupil’s light, which controls the size of the pupil in anticipation of expected changes in light, depends on the perceived environment rather than physical reality.
This means that the pupil’s reactions depend on perception (experience) and not necessarily on reality itself.
– Here we show that the pupil reacts to how we perceive light, even though this “light” is imaginary as in an illusion, and not just with the amount of light energy actually entering the eye, says Lange.
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If you look at the illusion of a “dilated aperture,” your pupils will dilate in the same way as if they were darker around you, according to the professor.
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The researchers also studied how the color of the hole and the surrounding dots can affect how strongly we interact with the illusion.
They did this by showing 50 women and men with normal vision variations of the image and asking them to rate how strong their perception of the illusion was. At the same time, the researchers measured the movements of their eyes and pupils.
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The illusion was most effective when the “hole” in the middle was black.
Among the participants, 14 percent did not see any enlargement of the macula in the middle. 20 percent don’t see the illusion if the spot is stained.
The researchers also found that black “holes” cause the pupils to dilate, while colored “holes” cause the pupils to narrow.
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With black holes, it turned out that the stronger the participants perceive (perceive) the illusion, the more dilated the pupils.
Why some people don’t realize the illusion of a growing crater is still a mystery to scientists.
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The results show that when the pupils react by dilation or constriction, it is not a fully automatic process like when the photocell opens the door, as no information other than the actual amount of light affects the photoreceptor, according to the professor.
Instead, the eye adapts to perceived light – and even imaginary light – not just physical energy. Future studies may reveal other types of physiological or physical changes that may shed light (!) on how delusions work, he says.
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